World immunization week

World immunization week: Tetanus is also known as Lockjaw disease. It is acquired through infection of a cut or wound with the spores of the bacterium Clostridium tetani, and most cases occur within 14 days of infection. Tetanus is not contagious (cannot be transmitted from person to person).

World immunization week

Tetanus is an acute infectious disease. The spores are found everywhere in the environment, particularly in soil, ash, intestinal tracts/feces of animals and humans, and on the surfaces of skin and rusty tools like nails, needles, barbed wire, etc. Being very resistant to heat and most antiseptics, the spores can survive for years.

Tetanus cuts across all age ranges, but the disease is particularly frequent and severe in newborn babies and pregnant women who have not been sufficiently immunized with tetanus-toxoid-containing Vaccines.

Tetanus during pregnancy or within six weeks of the end of pregnancy is called “maternal tetanus,” and tetanus within the first 28 days of life is called “neonatal tetanus.”

The disease remains a significant public health problem in many parts of the world, but especially in low-income countries or districts, where immunization coverage is low, and unclean birth practices are standard. Neonatal tetanus occurs when nonsterile instruments are used to cut the umbilical cord or when contaminated material is used to cover the umbilical stump. Deliveries carried out by people with unclean hands or on a contaminated surface are also risk factors.

Although Tetanus can be prevented through immunization with tetanus-toxoid-containing vaccines (TTCV), people who recover from tetanus do not have natural immunity and can re-infected.

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The disease remains a significant public health problem in many parts of the world, but especially in low-income countries or districts, where immunization coverage is low, and unclean birth practices are common. Neonatal tetanus occurs when nonsterile instruments are used to cut the umbilical cord or when contaminated material is used to cover the umbilical stump. Deliveries carried out by people with unclean hands or on a contaminated surface are also risk factors. Hence circumcisions and activities of

Traditional birth Attendants have implicated risk factors in increasing the incidence of tetanus.

SYMPTOMS AND DIAGNOSIS

  • The incubation period of tetanus varies between 3 to 21 days after infection. Most cases occur within 14 days.
  • Tetanus is diagnosed based on clinical features and does not require laboratory confirmation.
  • The WHO definition of a confirmed neonatal tetanus case is an illness occurring in an infant who has the

 

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